bw.rhinocrisy.org
Information

Classification of horticultural crops based on season

Classification of horticultural crops based on season


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


In terms of paragraph No. In this connection, please refer to paragraph No. As mentioned therein, in the case of long duration crops, the current prescription of 'not exceeding two half-years' is inadequate. In order to align the repayment dates with harvesting of crops, it has been decided that with effect from September 30, the following revised norms will be applicable to all direct agricultural advances as listed in the Annex :. A loan granted for short duration crops will be treated as NPA, if the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for two crop seasons. A loan granted for long duration crops will be treated as NPA, if the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for one crop season.

Content:
  • Chapter IV: Cultural Practices
  • HORTICULTURE
  • Classification of Horticultural crops
  • Classification of Crop based on Life Span: Annual, Biennial and Perennial Crops
  • Unit of competency details
  • Access Denied
  • Seasonal Classification of Vegetables
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: Horticulture Part-01 ( Classification of fruit crops-1) by Akash bajpai for AFO, NSC, IFFCO, UPSC

Chapter IV: Cultural Practices

A protective structure is defined as any structure designed to modify the environment in which plants are grown. Protective structures, such as greenhouses, screen houses, and tunnels, are known worldwide as production systems for high-quality vegetable and fruit crops. Manipulation of these environmental factors depends on the specific properties of the materials used on the roofs and sides of structures, as well as on the structure height, shape, and position.

For instance, in regions located in northern latitudes, such as Canada and the Netherlands, where season extension during the winter months is critical, greenhouses possess glass roofs and sides to preserve heat and maximize penetration of solar irradiation. However, in greenhouses and screen houses in tropical and subtropical climates, structures are made of flexible solid or porous plastic sheets that often reduce internal heat accumulation and favor passive ventilation.

A porous roof cover is generally defined as a material that greatly restricts water and gas penetration through it.

This does not include ventilation windows and openings on top of the structure. Examples of this type of roof include glass, plexiglass, and multilayer polyethylene sheets. Nonporous roof examples are saran nets and screen sheets. Shade houses and screen houses are the predominant types of porous-roof structures. The main difference between them is the color and mesh of their nets. Shade houses are usually made of black, red, or blue covers, and they are designed to protect the crop from intense sunlight while decreasing temperature and air humidity under the structure Figure 2.

Screen houses protect crops from high winds and prevent entry of mites, thrips, and aphids. They are usually covered with white nets. The level of protection a screen house provides against arthropod pests is related to the mesh of the net used in the structure. Some disadvantages of screen houses are low air movement and high temperatures. The use of screen houses in subtropical and tropical areas may be limited during the rainy season because of the high incidence of physiological disorders and propagation of disease-causing pathogens.

Greenhouses come in a variety of designs for vegetable and small fruit production, and they are classified according to their shape and height.

It has either active or passive ventilation through the roof and sides. It's made of wood or steel and ranges in height from 12 to 20 ft Figure 3.

Multi-chapel units are composed of single units attached to each other by rain gutters. This permanent structure is usually made of steel and is as tall as the chapel type Figure 3. It has semi-circular or semi-oval roofs supported on sides as low as 6 ft high.

This type of structure may have active or passive ventilation through the roof and sides. It is designed to maximize the recirculation of the air from inside to outside. The structure is made of wood or steel and ranges in height from 13 to 20 ft. Tunnels are the low-cost version of greenhouses. They are nonpermanent structures with passive ventilation through the sides and ends and have reduced construction and maintenance costs. These structures can be moved from one place to another, which allows for rotating to new soils and avoiding pests, disease build-up, and nutrient depletion.

The structure's height directly influences air and soil temperatures under plastic roof covers. Low tunnels also known as microtunnels are small, simple, easily installed, and inexpensive. They are covered with a fine net or plastic film that provides temporary protection for the crop. Low tunnels are generally used to protect crops during initial growth stages, against adverse climatic conditions, and to exclude certain diseases and insects Figure 4.

They are usually constructed along the crop row with flexible arches or hoops made of plastic or metal to support the net or plastic film. They can be ventilated by moving the cover to the sides and securing it with hooks or ropes. Their height usually restricts personnel movement and machinery under the roof, but they can cover more than one crop row.

High tunnels are passively ventilated structures built with metal e. Their height is generally between 10 and 16 ft, and they are recommended for indeterminate-growth cultivars, which cannot be grown under low tunnels.

Their height also allows for personnel and large agricultural equipment, unlike low tunnels. Plastic roof covers for protective structures protect the crop against rain and wind, reduce or increase temperature and relative humidity, regulate light, and reduce the incidence of pests. Several characteristics of roof covers determine the degree to which a structure's internal environment is regulated.

Different colors of plastic have different effects on plants. Most plastic covers are transparent, allowing light to penetrate. In tropical and subtropical areas, the amount of sunlight available usually surpasses the photosynthetic needs of the plants, which convert the excess light to heat. Changing the roof color to white or gray causes it to reflect part of the light that reaches the roof surface, decreasing the temperature inside the structure.

Opaque plastics reflect radiation out of the structure, decreasing temperature but increasing shading. Excess shading promotes internode elongation "stretching" of the plants and redistribution of carbohydrates because of competition for light between plants, likely decreasing fruit yield and quality. For instance, adding a silver or gray saran layer outside the roof reduces temperature, whereas a red saran layer tends to enhance seed germination and early development.

The density of the plastic roof affects temperature inside the structure. More rigid or heavier plastic needs more support to stay on top of the structure, creating artificial shadow that affects plants. At the same time, plastics must be resistant to potential wind and rain damage as well as to deformation from high and low temperatures.

Most plastic covers are composed of polyethylene chains and layers bonded together. Plastics for roofs often have two layers of polyethylene. Temperature modification inside structures can be achieved by including additives, such as those that diffuse light and reflect ultraviolet radiation.

Any language on the label that specifically prohibits or limits pesticide usage in a greenhouse environment must be followed.

However, protective structures are quite diverse, and so growers must be mindful of what constitutes a greenhouse within state and federal laws. While the classification described here based on rooftops is a practical means for classifying production structures, many of these structures would not fall under the definition of a greenhouse as interpreted by the US Environmental Protection Agency US EPA for pesticide labeling.

As such, growers must be aware that pesticide safety guidelines that previously applied to greenhouses now apply to all protective structures. Home Experts Topics. Classification of Protective Structures A protective structure is defined as any structure designed to modify the environment in which plants are grown.

Figure 1. Protective structure classification according to roof type. Credit: B. Santos and E. Figure 2. Shade houses for vegetable and small fruit production. Figure 3. Multi-chapel left and semi-cylindrical right greenhouse units with passive ventilation on roofs. Figure 4. Low left and high right tunnels for vegetable and small fruit production.

Contacts Gary Vallad. Find publications by topic area.


HORTICULTURE

Crop Classification based on Purpose in the Field. There are a number of different purposes and uses of the crops. The crops and cropping systems can be classified in a number of different ways based on a long list of categories. Previously we have discussed ' Botanical classification of plants ' and ' Agronomic Use classification of the crops '.

Part XIV - Season of Flowering and Fruiting of Fruit Crops. Part XXI - Soil Test Crop based Integrated Plant Nutrition System for. Horticultural Crops.

Classification of Horticultural crops

SlideShare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Create your free account to read unlimited documents. The SlideShare family just got bigger. Home Explore Login Signup. Successfully reported this slideshow.

Classification of Crop based on Life Span: Annual, Biennial and Perennial Crops

Economic Survey 7. Agriculture and Horticulture. This pace of development is further jeopardized due to the erratic apple production, owing to weather vagaries and market fluctuations. The fluctuations in the production of apple during last few years have attracted the attention of the Government.

In this brief article we are going to take a look at the various classifications of horticultural crops. But before we start with that, let us take a moment to know what horticultural crops are.

Unit of competency details

About Privacy Policy Contact. Ads Below Headers. Bhagwan Deen 0. Diversity in living things exists in nature and subtle differences are present even in clones. The orderly grouping of plants based on their resemblance is called classification.

Access Denied

Horticultural crops are also classified according to the season in which they grow best. In our country we have three main season. Soil Forming Processes. Representative of Soil Sample. Principles Of Weed Control. Rainy season crops are known as "Kharif" crops. These crops come up best when sown with the onset of monsoon in May, June. Lupines are known as "Rabi crops".

REQUIREMENTS, HORTICULTURAL AND certain range of crops and cultivars. Fruits are broadly classified on the basis of their temperature.

Seasonal Classification of Vegetables

The classification of crops in India can be done on the basis of season and on the basis of usage. The types of crops based on season are classified as Kharif crops, Rabi crops and Zaid crops. The types of crops based on usage are classified as food and cash crops.

RELATED VIDEO: Classification of horticultural crops

A protective structure is defined as any structure designed to modify the environment in which plants are grown. Protective structures, such as greenhouses, screen houses, and tunnels, are known worldwide as production systems for high-quality vegetable and fruit crops. Manipulation of these environmental factors depends on the specific properties of the materials used on the roofs and sides of structures, as well as on the structure height, shape, and position. For instance, in regions located in northern latitudes, such as Canada and the Netherlands, where season extension during the winter months is critical, greenhouses possess glass roofs and sides to preserve heat and maximize penetration of solar irradiation. However, in greenhouses and screen houses in tropical and subtropical climates, structures are made of flexible solid or porous plastic sheets that often reduce internal heat accumulation and favor passive ventilation.

Sign in Sign up.

Agriculture JSS1. Classification of Crops based on Life cycle and Uses. Crops plants are classified based on three criteria which are;. General Classification of Plants. By Growth habit :. Succulent plants — herbaceous or herbs succulent seed plants possessing self-supporting stems Vine — a climbing or trailing herbaceous plant Liana — a climbing or trailing woody plant Trees — having a single central axis Shrub — having several more or less upright stems.

Globally, citrus fruits are grown over an area ofChina withAll commercially used scion and rootstock cultivars belong to the genus Citrus, except kumquats, Fortunella spp.


Watch the video: #HORT111. Lecture 2 Horticulture and Botanical Classification Part 1