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Landscape pattern definition

Landscape pattern definition


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Some common synonyms of pattern are example , exemplar , ideal , and model. While all these words mean "someone or something set before one for guidance or imitation," pattern suggests a clear and detailed archetype or prototype. In some situations, the words example and pattern are roughly equivalent. However, example applies to a person to be imitated or in some contexts on no account to be imitated but to be regarded as a warning. Although the words exemplar and pattern have much in common, exemplar suggests either a faultless example to be emulated or a perfect typification. The meanings of ideal and pattern largely overlap; however, ideal implies the best possible exemplification either in reality or in conception.

Content:
  • Landscape Pattern
  • Terrestrial Landscape Patterns and Dynamics
  • landscape ecology
  • Access Denied
  • What Is Landscape Ecology
  • Rose to prominence synonym
  • Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process. Monica G Turner (1989)
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: Patterns and landscapes. How to use patterns and tangles in a simple landscape drawing.

Landscape Pattern

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Analyses of landscape change patterns that are based on elevation and slope can not only provide reasonable interpretations of landscape patterns but can also help to reveal evolutionary laws. However, landscape change patterns and their model in different landforms of the typical watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area TGRA has not been quantified and assessed effectively. As a complex geographical unit, the ecological environment in the middle reach of the Yangtze River has experienced great changes due to the construction of the Three Gorges Project TGP and its associated human activities.

The results indicated that 1 the landscape types along with the land classification and buffer zone that were influenced by the TGR construction have undergone a phased change, with the period — being the most dramatic period of landscape evolution during the impoundment period; 2 landscape type shifts from human-dominated farmland to nature-driven forestland and shrub-land as elevations, slopes and buffer distances increased.

The landscape has shifted from diversity to relative homogeneity; 3 land types and buffer zones played essential roles in the landscape pattern index, which is reflected in the differences in landscape type indices for spatial extension and temporal characteristics.

The results of this paper illustrate the spatial—temporal characteristics of various landscape types at three distinct stages in the construction of the TGR. These findings indicate that the landscape ecological security of the watershed is improving year by year. The follow-up development of the TGRA needs to consider the landscape change patterns of different landforms.

As an effective method for water resource utilization and regulation, dams have made important contributions to social and economic development. More rivers have been altered, and large-scale water conservation projects 3 , 4 have been undertaken to satisfy the demands of rapid socioeconomic development 5 , 6.

In particular, the construction of master engineering has profoundly influenced landscapes. In recent decades, these changes have attracted extensive attention from experts and scholars around the world 9 , 10 , 11 ,As especially frequent human activities, land inundation, flow manipulation, and fragmentation triggered by reservoir construction 13 have crucial environmental impacts: unavoidable crop production losses 14 , changes in hydrological conditions 15 , soil erosion 16 , increases in population and pollution inputs 17 , which ultimately lead to changes in landscape patterns.

In the context of global climate change, dam construction and its ecological effects are complex, potential, spatial, cumulative, and unpredictableQuantifying the landscape ecological impact of reservoirs is essential for developing appropriate strategies to reduce adverse impacts on regional environments.

Land-use-based landscape ecological security assessments play an important role in the construction of ecological security patternsFor a start, it is necessary to distinguish the fundamental conceptions of land cover and land use. Land use reflects the utilization manner and condition of the natural properties of land by human beings.

In other words, it means according to the natural characteristics of the land and under certain economic and social purposes, humans adopt biological and technological measures to manage and govern land in a long-term and cyclical mannerLandscape refers to the mixture or repetition of regional ecosystem or land use type in a certain area of landFrom the perspective of Geography, it can be seen as geocomplex and land can be used as the landscape types in a sense, landscape-scale was considered as the suitable level to study the environmental impacts from human activitiesLandscape pattern refers to the spatial structure characteristics of the landscape such as spatial distribution, structure, and configuration of spatial components with a variety of sizes, shapes, and attributesIt not only shows the heterogeneity of landscape but also reflects the result of natural or human disturbance.

With time, landscape elements are exceptionally resistant to spatial and temporal variability at multiple scales. The gradient effect is evident for different elevations, slopes, and topographic fluctuationsTopographical factors, including elevation and slope, are among the many factors that are crucial to the natural environment 27 , which determines the changing direction and ways of landscape types to some extent.

Geomorphic conditions are the most critical factor for determining the intensity of human transformations of landscapes. Landscape conditions form landscape evolution patterns that reflect not only the extent of human influence on natural ecosystems but also the responses of human activities triggered by landscape conditionsAs one of the largest dam reservoirs in the world, the TGR is located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River 29 and is a fragile natural ecosystem 30 , 31 with complex and rugged topography that play a big part in the evolution of landscape patterns and intentions of human disruptive activitiesWith the construction of the Three Gorges Dam TGD and several increases in water levels, many areas upstream of the reservoir have been inundatedLandscape patterns have also changed greatly with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbanceAnthropogenic activities like eco-migrants, urban construction, land use changes, comprehensive supporting facilities, and ecological engineering have resulted in changes in the structure and function of the ecosystem in the reservoir areaMeanwhile, several measures taken to address agricultural surface pollution and mitigate soil erosion have also led to landscape element changes 37 ,Besides, approximately three-quarters of the TGRA is mountainous, and approximatelyIn response to local ecological changes, the Chinese government has actively implemented various large-scale ecological policies and strategies, such as the Forest Projects 40 and Special Water Management PlanThese policies in China in the past directly affected the evolution paths of landscape types and landscape patterns in mountainous areasIn recent decades, there has been an abundance of national and international research on landscape evolution patterns, as is evidenced by qualitative and quantitative analyses using GIS and RS techniques in conjunction with landscape pattern indices 43 that include the relationships between landscape and soil erosion 44 , ecological security patterns 45 , and granularity of landscape pattern effects 46 , among others.

As research has progressed, some scholars have introduced landscapes into geography to study the relationship between landscape change and landforms 47 , and the scale of research has gradually shifted from comprehensive evaluations at large scales to in-depth studies at small scales.

Moreover, most studies have lacked the dynamics of evaluation results over long periods. At this stage, many researchers have studied the evolution of landscape patterns in the TGRA before and after water storage; and have focused on spatial granularity effects 48 , effects of forest restoration on soil erosion 49 ; and cropland patterns and driving forcesWhat are the differences in landscape evolution characteristics of distinct land types?

These are research questions that we try to address. While past work has mainly focused on landscape change and its evolution characteristics, little information is available on the relationship between landforms based on elevations and slope gradients and the evolution of landscape patterns. Landscapes can vary under different landform conditions 47 , and the landform context had a drastic impact on landscape pattern evolution and human disturbanceThe land cover and landscape types in the TGRA have shown great variations due to the influence of water conservancy construction.

Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the evolution of each landscape pattern based on elevation and slope zone reclassification in typical watersheds of Chongqing under the context of the TGP construction and operation. The intention is to provide referential significance for land use planning, the establishment of ecological patterns, and environmental protection in the core of the TGRA.

In China, the TGP began in and was completed in on the upper trunk of the Yangtze River 50 , which is the largest hydroelectric project ever conducted 51 , to accommodate flood control, irrigation, increased navigation, and power generation needs 52 ,Hydropower construction was completed in 39 , reservoir filling was initiated in , and impoundment was completed inBy June , the water level was expected to increase to m ASL above sea level , and the first filling stage was completed inThe reservoir level reached m ASL in OctoberIn October , the TGR reached its normal storage level of m ASL for the first time 56 , and approximately km 2 of citrus and farmland was inundated.

The formation of the TGRA is a direct consequence of the damAccording to previous relevant studies, the TGRA can be divided into three critical moments: the construction period, impoundment period, and Post-Three Gorges era 60 ,Considering the actual situation of the hinterland basin of the reservoir area and the difficulty of data acquisition, this study is divided into three phases: —, —, and — Fig.

The workflow chart for the evolution of landscape change patterns in this study can be summarised as follows Fig. First, the landscape type maps were classified by ENVI 5. Second, based on buffer zone analysis and land type division in ArcGISIn the results analysis part, we first analyze the K Speeds , P Trends of landscape types and LA Index of landscape type change intensity in buffer zones; then the landscape metrics PD , SHDI , AI , and LSI were computed to reveal the landscape characteristics in buffer zones and land types; finally, combined with the method of landscape ecological security index, we summarize the change modes in area and landscape pattern.

This area belongs to the Chongqing section of the TGRA, covers four counties Yunyang, Fengjie, Wushan, and Wuxi and is the core area for ecological protection and development in northeast Chongqing and is also a fragile and ecologically sensitive area of the TGRA with high mountains and steep slopesThe watershed belongs to the first tributary of the north bank of the Yangtze River; TR, MR, and DR are adjacent to each other with various natural social and economic backgrounds.

DR is a karst watershed, MR is combined karst and non-karst watershed, and TR is heavily influenced by coal and other industrial wastes with many factories, coal mines, and construction sites. Our study area is representative of the contemporary landscape and is subject to natural and anthropogenic gradients and disturbances.

Location and topography of the study area in the TGRA. Maps were generated using ArcGISOur basic data sources include multitemporal satellite datasets and a DEM.

In this paper, the support vector machine method is used in landscape classification and alters manually the misclassified landscapes. By verifying the data accuracy through the confusion matrix and ensuring the Kappa index is above 0.

The regional landscapes were divided into dry land, paddy field, forestland, shrubland, grassland, water area, built-up areas, and unused landFor the land-use data, we strictly compared them with the high-resolution images from resource satellites with a resolution of 2.

The spatial division of landscape type in the watershed from toWe overlaid the landscape type map with the landform classification data by using the Intersection tool in ArcGISFigure 5 a exhibits the changes in K -values along with landforms for each landscape type.

From to , the K -values for altitude and slope changed differently. Waters and built-up areas showed clear increasing trends at elevation gradients below m, while forestland and waters showed the most pronounced increases in each slope zone. This dramatic increase was mainly due to the rise in reservoir levels and the implementation of the national migration policy.

As a result of urbanization, the total amount of built-up areas exhibited an upward trend from to in the middle mountainous areas where the elevations were higher than m. Figure 5 b represents the trend of P in landscape type along with land classification at each time point. In the period —, the landscaping trend changed slightly except in valley areas. From to , land use trends varied for elevation and slope.

From to , the landscape trends changed slightly, except in the valley and mid-mountain areas. In general, landscape types in the watershed change at different rates and trends along elevation, slopes, and buffers, and the changes are phased and exhibit a process that changes from quantitative to qualitative.

The period from — experienced the most intense landscape evolution during the impoundment period. Variations in buffer distance reflect some extent the variations in upstream and downstream distances.

Figure 6 shows that the LA of each buffer zone in the basin showed a general downward trend that reached a maximum value for a buffer zone of 30 km and a minimum value for a buffer zone of km. Within the 30 km buffer zone, the terrain is relatively flat, dominated by micro-slopes, and influenced by the intensity of human activities, while the degree of development is relatively high.

As illustrated in Fig. Within the 30 km buffer, all land types in the TR had the highest landscape synthesis with reduced fluctuations around them, while the landscape synthesis in the MR and DR buffers showed notably different features across the different media. For the MR, the largest number occurred for a buffer zone of 10 km during the period of — among each geomorphic type.

The 50 km buffer zone was largest in for the valley, medium-mountain, and steep slope areas, while the 80 km buffer zone was largest for the low-mountain, slight slope, and gentle slope areas. This illustrates that the spatial distribution of the LA in the MR showed an obvious spatial heterogeneity in terms of elevation and slope.

In , except for the gentle slope, the 70 km buffer zone was the largest, while the other geomorphic areas were all largest in the 10 km buffer zone. The maximum value of the LA among the geomorphic areas in the DR occurred in different buffer zones. By comparing relevant research results, it was found that the 30 km buffer zone in the TR, 50 km buffer zone in MR, and 10 km buffer zone in the DR were mainly — m ASL, and the lithology was mainly sandstone and mud shale, which are easily reclaimed for farmland.

Human activities were relatively concentrated 65 , so LA was relatively high.


Terrestrial Landscape Patterns and Dynamics

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Analyses of landscape change patterns that are based on elevation and slope can not only provide reasonable interpretations of landscape patterns but can also help to reveal evolutionary laws. However, landscape change patterns and their model in different landforms of the typical watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area TGRA has not been quantified and assessed effectively. As a complex geographical unit, the ecological environment in the middle reach of the Yangtze River has experienced great changes due to the construction of the Three Gorges Project TGP and its associated human activities.

Abstract. A common approach for quantifying landscape pattern through landscape metrics is to use categorical maps of entire landscape.

Landscape ecology

Abstract: wetlands are ecological landscapes with abundant biodiversity and serve as one of living environments of human beings, playing important ecological functions in regulating floods, purifying water quality and modulating climate, which have significant effects on climate change, economic development at the local, regional or global levels. Wetlands have been compartmentalized one type of land covers in global change conference. Land use structures and processes of wetland landscape have also been one of key research fields of landscape ecology and wetland ecology, since land use researches are important contents of landscape ecology. Generally, wetland landscape means wetland cells with spatial heterogeneity at the different scales. And wetland landscape patterns mean spatial arrangement of wetland landscape patches with different sizes and shapes, and have higher spatial heterogeneity, which are caused by comprehensions of all ecological processes at the different levels and have great impacts on ecological functions and processes of landscapes. Therefore, spatial structure of wetland landscapes has become one of core contents. Wetland ecosystems have been proved to be one of ecosystems which are seriously endangered, and most wetlands have been transformed or lost because of natural processes and human activities. In this paper, dynamic changes in wetland landscape patterns, research methods, wetland landscape pattern indexes, driving factors and model simulating of wetland landscape changes, and relationships between changes in wetland landscape patterns and climate changes are reviewed, and key research fields in the future such as changes of wetland landscape patterns and their ecological effects, and relationships between changes of alpine wetland landscape patterns and climate changes are finally pointed out. Key words: climate change, landscape patterns, wetland. On definition and quantification of heterogeneity.

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Fire Ecology volume 5 , pages 86— Cite this article. Metrics details. Fire events contribute to landscape pattern at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and a landscape perspective can provide relevant information for assessing how a changing fire regime will influence pattern-process dynamics. We investigated how the amount and spatial arrangement of high-severity patches varied among 20 fires that occurred in Arizona and New Mexico, USA, across gradients in fire size and climate.

Relating spatial patterns to ecological processes is one of the central goals of landscape ecology.

What Is Landscape Ecology

The study of the landscape was once the main subject of study in geography. Now, it is a core topic in many disciplines, such as geography and ecology, soil science and land survey, landscape architecture and planning, psychology and philosophy, history and archaeology. This essay analyses how this evolution came about in Europe in general and focuses then upon the Belgian situation. Landscape is still seen as a dynamic synthesis between the natural and cultural environment of a region. At the same time it is the expression of the consecutive human attitudes towards the occupied and organised land. Landscapes have a unique history that is part of their identity.

Rose to prominence synonym

Focuses attention on the preservation of species in native forested landscapes, with particular reference to the forest land of SE Wisconsin. Optimal preservation requires definition of forest island conditions and their potential for influencing species composition through time. These definitions are imposed as constraints on the objective of forest species preservation. The methodology is developed in 3 parts: 1 conceptualisation and definition of constraints via a series of structural equations, collectively termed a systems model; 2 demonstration of the utility of the systems model; and 3 description of the forest island arrangement inherent in a given region by means of spatial pattern analyses. Optimization of forest island spatial patterns : methodology for analysis of landscape pattern Wisconsin. N2 - Focuses attention on the preservation of species in native forested landscapes, with particular reference to the forest land of SE Wisconsin. AB - Focuses attention on the preservation of species in native forested landscapes, with particular reference to the forest land of SE Wisconsin.

10 Landscape Pattern Patches Defining patches using vector data Digitizing = delineating polygon patches using remotely- sensed data (e.g., DOQ) based on.

Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process. Monica G Turner (1989)

Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving the relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes on a multitude of landscape scales and organizational levels. Landscapes are spatially heterogeneous geographic areas characterized by diverse interacting patches or ecosystems, ranging from relatively natural terrestrial and aquatic systems such as forests, grasslands and lakes to human-dominated environments including agricultural and urban settings. These necessitate the coupling between biophysical and socioeconomic sciences. The term landscape ecology was coined by Carl Troll , a German geographer, in

RELATED VIDEO: Landscape Ecology: Concepts in Scale and Pattern

Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizational levels of research and policy. As a highly interdisciplinary field in systems science, landscape ecology integrates biophysical and analytical approaches with humanistic and holistic perspectives across the natural sciences and social sciences. Landscapes are spatially heterogeneous geographic areas characterized by diverse interacting patches or ecosystems, ranging from relatively natural terrestrial and aquatic systems such as forests, grasslands, and lakes to human-dominated environments including agricultural and urban settings. The most salient characteristics of landscape ecology are its emphasis on the relationship among pattern, process and scale, and its focus on broad-scale ecological and environmental issues.

Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizational levels of research and policy.

As indices of landscape structure, landscape metrics can be used to describe the composition and spatial arrangement of a landscape. They can be applied at different levels to describe single landscape elements by such features as size, shape, number or for whole landscapes by describing the arrangement of landscape elements and the diversity of landscape. The reason for using these metrics in spatial analysis may be to record the structure of a landscape quantitatively on the basis of area, shape, edge lines, diversity and topology-descriptive mathematical ratios; to document for purposes of monitoring; or to make the relevant information available as input parameters for landscape ecological simulation models. Overviews of the current discussions and the application of landscape metrics are given on the use of landscape metrics for landscape analysis with Geographic Information Systems GIS by Lang and Blaschke , the application of landscape metrics in nature protection and landscape research by Blaschke and Uuemaa et al. Thereby, each level is dependent on each other.

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