Africa fruit trees
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Faidherbia is the ideal tree to intercrop with cereal crops like maize, sorghum, and millet. In Zambia for example, maize yields were 3 tonnes per hectare under Faidherbia canopies and only 2 tonnes per ha. Also, the tree is able to take nitrogen, an essential fertiliser, out of the atmosphere through bacteria that grows on its roots. Where this tree grows spontaneously, farmers protect the seedlings that naturally emerge. This is a system promoted by Self Help Africa in all projects — known as Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration FMNR , where farmers are trained and supported in managing their resources to maintain and improve their land, farms and livelihoods. The variety of Acacia is very important to to the farming communities Self Help Africa works with in Malawi.
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: South African Fruit Industry Value ChainContent:
- Plant fruit trees to improve nutrition and generate income
- Trees can go extinct, too. Meet the endangered fruit tree of West Africa
- Fruit Trees
- Indigenous fruit trees in the tropics: domestication, utilization and commercialization.
- Tree Directory
- Food and fruit trees of The Gambia.
- Gardening in South Africa
Plant fruit trees to improve nutrition and generate income
Planting trees is a great idea. Trees provide beauty, shade, wildlife habitat and more. And if planting a tree is a good idea, planting a fruit tree is even better! Fruit trees also provide food and jobs. Below is a list of some food-bearing trees that we encourage planting. And if you are interested in tree donations, please find our request form here.
All requests are now handled online. We will review and respond within one week. Be sure to include your email address in the request.
Ackee is the national fruit of Jamaica. It is a familiar, delicious, staple dish when served with fish, or sometimes bacon. Its name is derived from the West African name Akye fufo, which is where the fruit is native. It was brought to Jamaica during the 18th century, along with other fruit, to feed the people. Since then it has become a major feature of various Caribbean cuisines. The ackee tree is an evergreen related to the lychee and the longan.
It grows up to 25 feet tall with a short trunk and a dense crown. The leaves are a light, almost luminous green. The fruit has a red outer skin, bright yellow exposed flesh, and black seeds.
An ackee tree in bloom is beautiful. There are two bearing seasons, typically January to March and June to August, depending to some extent on rainfall. The fruit is about the size and shape of a pear. As it ripens , it turns from green to a bright red to a yellow-orange, and splits open to reveal three large, shiny black seeds, surrounded by soft, creamy or spongy, white to yellow flesh called the arilli.
This is the edible part of the fruit and is only safely edible after it has split open and cooked. Occasionally one hears of an unwise consumer of the unripe fruit who suffers from vomiting due to certain unusual amino acids. Nowadays such accidents are very rare. Ackee is considered a fruit but is cooked and used as vegetable.
To prepare Ackee the arils are cleaned and washed. They are then boiled for about 30 minutes and the arils will turn from cream to bright yellow. Ackee is a staple food, high in nutritional value, including protein, unsaturated fat, fiber, calcium, iron, potassium and other minerals.
Commercial canning makes the fruit available year-round and also serves as a major export product for Jamaica. In years past, the US government restricted importation of canned ackee but with improved quality control restrictions were lifted. The canned product, produced in both Jamaica and Haiti, is readily available in stores in the US and Canada. The ackee tree grows true to form from seeds. Trees That Feed Foundation is encouraging propagation and more widespread planting for local consumption and increased export capacity.
The objective of Trees That Feed Foundation is to supply hardened field-ready fruit tree saplings to farmers and community groups in developing tropical countries, to address nutrition, economic and environmental needs.
We like to start with fruit that are well known. The first tree we selected to plant is the breadfruit. It is already well accepted throughout many parts of Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and Central America. The fruit is tasty, nutritious and filling. Ironically breadfruit thrives in many locations where food supply is insufficient.
Breadfruit bears a round or oval fruit weighing 4 to 6 pounds, or more. One fruit provides the carbohydrate portion of a meal for a family of six. A mature tree can produce to fruit, up to a half ton of food per year. In an orchard setting planted at a density of 35 to 40 trees per acre, breadfruit out-produces all tropical starch crops, yielding upwards of 18 tons of fruit annually 35 metric tons per hectare.
Breadfruit is a true tropical tree that was the basis of Polynesian expansion through the Pacific. They are tolerant to salt and drought.
Ideal conditions though are light soil, warm tropical temperatures, and rainfall of 30 inches annually, or more. Once established the trees are hardy, with a natural resistance to pests and disease. Saplings are often in short supply because the traditional methods of propagating stem or root cuttings are slow and unreliable. Our partner nurseries have perfected improved, predictable techniques of propagation thus greatly increasing the supply of saplings.
Our supply of many thousands of additional breadfruit trees has been enthusiastically welcomed in many countries. One success factor: TTFF supplies fruit trees that are already well known and locally desirable.
We tend to avoid unfamiliar new varieties and trying to influence existing cultural habits. Fresh breadfruit has a short shelf life, only a few days. The processed fruit has a shelf life measured in months or years. They are now successfully producing tons of breadfruit flour for local and export markets.
We already see the potential to substantially reduce hunger and reduce the dependence on now expensive imported corn, rice and wheat. The trees are useful as a carbon sequestration sink, allow understory crops and since this is a crop that does not require annual soil plowing, it helps to conserve soil.
Fruiting trees are more likely to be valued and less likely to be cut down. The benefits inure to the farmer, employees, community and global environment. Historical Breadfruit Decline. In Jamaica, for example, there were 2.
The number declined to 46, by , although numbers have since increased somewhat under a Government program. Heavy marketing, convenience of use and the US crop subsidy programs have caused a steady shift over the past four decades from local foods to imported wheat, corn and rice.
Trees That Feed Foundation is reversing that trend! The breadfruit collection at Kanuna Garden, where most of the research is underway.
Photo by Jim Wiseman, Breadfruit Institute. Click Here. Back to top of page. The cashew is a tropical evergreen tree native to Brazil. Today major producers are Nigeria, Vietnam, and India. It is fast growing and an excellent shade tree and food source. It has a well-developed root system and can tolerate drought conditions as well as sandy soils unsuitable for other fruit trees, but it will not grow in poorly drained soils.
This tree has a short trunk and wide branch spread, growing up to 14 meters 46 feet in height. It blossoms from November to January. Seedling trees flower in the third year, and fruit ripens within 2 months.
Seeds nuts germinate within four days when lying on wet soil. The dwarf cashew grows to 6 meters 20 feet and is more profitable because of earlier maturity and higher yields. It is edible with a strong sweet smell and taste. However, because of the juicy pulp and fragile skin, it is unsuitable for transport. Rich in nutrients, cashew fruit has five times more vitamin C than an orange; more calcium, iron and vitamin B1 than other fruits such as citrus, avocadoes, and bananas.
The apple is more popular than the nut in much of South America, but the nuts are more popular in the rest of the world because of transport difficulties.
The true fruit of the plant is a kidney-shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The cashew nut is inside the drupe.
When raw, the cashew seed, which we call the nut, is soft, white and meaty. When roasted it changes color and taste. The seed is surrounded by a double shell that contains a toxic allergen related to poison ivy. Properly roasting destroys the toxin, and cashews then are a less frequent allergen than most other nuts. They are a popular snack and food source. Unlike other oily nuts, cashews contain starch and are an effective thickening agent and a source of antioxidants.
Cashew oil is used in cooking and salad dressing. The shell of the nut is used in lubricants and paints. Other parts of the plant are used in medicines. Cashew trees are hardy and easy to grow. They have large leaves and fragrant pink flowers that produce highly nutritious fruit. The nuts keep well inside their shells and can be stored for up to two years. The challenge is in avoiding the caustic liquid when shelling the nuts.
Mango is a fruit belonging to the cashew family that grows in tropical regions throughout the world. It serves as a main food of many people in tropical countries and is often called the king of tropical fruits.
Trees can go extinct, too. Meet the endangered fruit tree of West Africa
Gardening in South Africa will also guide you on how to plant vegetables, herbs and other yummy things to enhance a healthy diet. Sadly, growing fruit trees became very untrendy and gardeners focused on large expanses of manicured lawns and long borders filled with flowering shrubs, perennials, and lots of annual colour. The trends then shifted to more practical gardens which were often a lot smaller, and to gardens where maintenance could be kept at a minimum, simply because our lives had become too busy and gardening had also become a lot more expensive. Gone were the large expanses of lawn and masses of annuals which required lots of watering, and in their place we saw a lot more ornamental grasses and water-wise perennials and shrubs being used, together with a lot more hard landscaping materials like pavers, pebbles and mulches.
The ideal position in South Africa, because of the hot afternoon heat, is against an east facing wall. Traditionally apples and pears were most commonly used.
Resource-poor communities in Kenya and Uganda often suffer from malnutrition and stunting. However, Eastern Africa is home to a range of nutrient-dense fruit trees such as pawpaw, mango, mulberry, loquat, water berry, custard apple, guava, white sapote, lemon, orange, chocolate berry, passion fruit and desert date. These food trees have huge potential as a sustainable food product given they provide a rich nutrient source that already exists within local ecosystems. Additionally, they have been traditionally used to complement and diversify staple diets, which helps prevent nutrient deficiencies and contributes to better health. In these regions, such a diversity of trees means there is always one flourishing and providing fruits at some point during the year. Additionally, trees enhance the resilience of farming to climate variability: they have deep roots that are more tolerant to drought than ordinary crops. Fruit tree farms are important for nutrition because they provide easily accessible food that is rich in vitamins and minerals such as iron, zinc, vitamin A, calcium and other micronutrients required by the body for proper growth and development. ICRAF and partners support farmers to inform them about the nutritional value of diverse food sources and support them to integrate trees into mixed crop farming systems. This also provides opportunities for income-generating activities during traditional periods of crop gestation for smallholder farming communities.
Indigenous fruit trees in the tropics: domestication, utilization and commercialization.
Stargrow Cultivar Development specializes in the development of a unique range of fruit cultivars which adds value to production on the farms of growers who plant them. The company takes care of the commercialisation of these varieties, both locally in South Africa and throughout the world and it manages the Intellectual Property Rights of these varieties. Stargrow Cultivar Development SCD is adding value to fruit production supply chain with the development of a unique range of new varieties as well as with the commercialisation of these varieties, locally in South Africa or internationally. SCD will ensure that the necessary import permit is supplied, the parcel is tracked, custom cleared and established in quarantine.
In the seventeenth century, the Dutch planted fruit trees at the southern tip of Africa that were then dried for later use. The long, dry, and hot South African climate is ideal for this process and dried fruits have now become a cultural food enjoyed by many.
Read Full Report Date: Jan. Alison Burnette, Media Relations Assistant. Office of News and Public Information. African science institutes, policymakers, nongovernmental organizations, and individuals could all use modern horticultural knowledge and scientific research to bring these "lost crops" -- such as baobab, marula, and butterfruit -- to their full potential, said the panel that issued the report. Today, tropical fruit production in Africa is dominated by species introduced from Asia and the Americas , such as bananas, pineapples, and papayas.
Food and fruit trees of The Gambia.
The general and long term objectives of this project are to provide the basis for evaluating and improving the available genetic base of multipurpose fruit trees for drought prone areas especially in Southern Africa with aim of contributing to the improvement of living conditions by improving sustainable agricultural production of high value crops while reducing land degradation. There are two main themes: I the collection, selection and evaluation of new drough tolerant fruit trees especially Ziziphus for Southern Africa. This will involve the selection of promising Ziziphus mauritiana clones from India, introduction to Zimbabwe, and propagation for evaluation trials in contrasting climatic zones which will assess performance and suitability for rainfed cultivation as well as fruit nutritional quality and acceptability. Existing mature trees of Ziziphus and of other native fruit trees of zimbabwe will also be identified for preliminary performance evaluation. II the improvement of understanding of drought adaptation mechanisms in fruit trees and the development of selection criteria for semi-arid areas. Developmental, physiological and biochemical drought adaptation mechanisms will be assessed in field experiments in India and Zimbabwe, and using glasshouse studies. M H emphasis would be on genetic comparisons of canopy development and water relations, productivity and photoprotection, and osmotic adjustment with the aim of combining into an integrative model for predicting optimum genotypes for a given environment.
After introductory sections on the utilization of food and fruit trees, Publisher information; Stiftung Walderhaltung in Afrika Hamburg German Federal.
Gardening in South Africa
One of the limitations of Uapaca kirkiana on-farm cultivation is the long juvenile phase to reach a stable fruiting stage. Marcots and grafts have been identified as feasible and reliable propagation methods for precocious fruiting, but the effects of different propagule types on tree growth and fruit yield have not been evaluated. There is limited knowledge on development and growth forms for trees derived from different propagules.
Cultivation of citrus The enjoyment from a home fruit garden depends largely on the condition and general appearance of the trees. Purchase young trees from a nursery that is registered with the South African Citrus Improvement Scheme. Trees should not be too old or too big, otherwise they are likely to be pot-bound. Climatic requirements Citrus trees are subtropical in origin and cannot tolerate severe frosts.
Received 4 November ; revised 28 November ; accepted 13 December
In Southern Africa, heavily starch-based diets are common despite the array of tropical fruit, due to social and ecological change. This project aims to trigger the scaling of nutrition-dense landscapes in rural Zambia by working with 10, homes to grow carefully-curated portfolios of wild and exotic fruit trees. Produced by nursery operators we train, these trees will provide year-round diets rich in micronutrients, and bring families new earnings, and capture carbon and support pollinators. Africa's great miombo forest, rich in indigenous fruit, lies across Zambia. But deforestation is causing tree cover to recede, and nature's abundant supply is falling. At the same time, farms themselves produce few fruits and vegetables. The result is that diets provide little in the way of the micronutrients needed for healthy growth and well-being.
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