Rdr2 plant dynamite on armored car
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Rdr2 plant dynamite on armored car".
In 1959 the Statoil-Stord boom ended, and the vessels remaining in Stord were the anchor-drift towboats Rönningen, Rona, Hadeland, Nykobing, and Sogn, the anchor-dock tankers Vesterålen and Val and the floating dock Framneset.
No more large oil shipments were expected to the period, as well as a subsequent boom which, under the orders of the Minister of Trade and Industry, went ahead with two big developments: the two terminals Gøta and Sandsvik, which were built by Skibsindustri for the petroleum refinery Glitre, and the new oil refinery Glitre at Sandefjord in 1965. This transformed the Norwegians into a crude oil importer instead of an exporter of petroleum. It was estimated that Norwegian production was doubled by 1963.
The construction of large tankers with a capacity of 22,000 tonnes or larger began in the late 1960s, most notably the long sailing tanker Greip and the new record-breaker Måløyfjord, the biggest ship in the world from 1972 to 1985. While they were built to higher standards than those built in the 1950s, the size of these tankers turned out to be the economical solution, when the oil products that could be refined into fuels could be transported in new larger tankers that were also suitable for transporting oil.
In the period 1971–1976 the sea trade gradually became dominated by petroleum and gas products instead of crude oil, so that the volume of the oil trade declined. In 1976 this trend was broken by two events: the Soviet Union's starting oil exports to Western Europe from their port of Murmansk, and the oil tanker Måløyfjord II was laid down and launched in 1978, being finished in 1984 and reaching a speed of.
Dramatic changes took place in the 1970s and 1980s. Norway became in the 1970s a net importer of oil products from the Nordic countries, and was the single largest importer of petroleum products in Europe and the world. Between 1972 and 1976 the exports declined from 25,000 to 9,000 tonnes.
When it was founded the consortia Fridtjof Nansen was to cooperate with only three companies. Their sole product was hydrocarbons from the North Sea. Since 1982 they were allowed to export the refined products oil. For oil products, the geographical location of large continental countries on the European continent posed difficulties for crude oil from the Middle East. The Soviet Union was the dominant supplier to these countries and they needed to purchase a lot of oil.
During the 1980s, the Soviet Union started to cut their supplies to Europe. According to one hypothesis, the two key problems of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the military buildup on the Russian borders was that the Soviets had lacked petroleum products for their military requirements. On the other hand, if the United States had offered a $2 billion credit line to the Soviet Union for oil purchases, which the U.S. and its allies were concerned about, it may have caused them to become concerned about the possibility of the Soviet Union using the credit as a source of political leverage in any potential agreement with the United States. However, in an October 1981 speech to a National Association of Woolen Manufacturers convention in New York, U.S. President Ronald Reagan proposed that the Soviet Union not be allowed to obtain American cash payments for oil without a United States equivalent in goods (non-military goods). Secretary of State Alexander Haig indicated that the proposal "was consistent with U.S. policy since the early 1970s," and had been considered by Congress on five occasions since 1975.
Norway was taken off the list of possible suppliers of crude oil by the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, and from then on for all practical purposes Norway was a pure importer of petroleum products from the Middle East. The physical infrastructures that were built and dedicated for oil products during the 1950s and 1960s were not suited for the reduced crude oil shipments that were expected. The petroleum refineries in Stord could only be used for processing refined products. The offshore oilfields were inefficient with regards to the heavy crude that could not be processed in large refineries, since the heavy crude was better suited for smaller oilfields near the coast.
The demand for crude oil was gradually replaced by the demand for gasoline and heavy fuels for power generation. New techniques and equipment were needed, but this time the instruments from the world of nuclear power. A necessary condition for the new techniques was a basis of reliable data from the past, where the Norwegian oil industry had already developed new techniques and instruments. It was also desirable to have time to build up a workforce and learn from existing technology.
There was a need for new, modern instrumentation in this area. The Norwegian Energi Consultancy, later renamed NILU/Consulting in Energy Systems, was founded to develop new instruments. The instrumentation was intended to supplement the traditional ways of measuring the composition of oil at different stages of the pipeline, for example by measuring the absolute gas fraction in the pipeline, or by measuring the compressibility of the gas fraction in the pipeline, but also providing knowledge about the quality of the crude oil. Furthermore, the equipment was designed to measure the strength and compressibility of the gas fraction in pipelines in difficult topologies, such as many meters beneath the sea, or pipelines on land that were laid on soil